Friday, December 11, 2009

Word of the Day: music

I found this quote on the new DTB CD (review of last night's awesome performance coming soon). I realized I hadn't done music yet at a WOTD for my coworkers (I do one every day):

Quote: "Music is like a river or stream that has come down to us through time, bringing nurture to man’s soul. From the past masters, this music flowed to my father and through him to me. I want to keep this stream flowing. I don’t want it to die. It must spread all over the world." - Ali Akbar Khan

mu⋅sic [myoo-zik]

1. an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color.
2. the tones or sounds employed, occurring in single line (melody) or multiple lines (harmony), and sounded or to be sounded by one or more voices or instruments, or both.
3. musical work or compositions for singing or playing.
4. the written or printed score of a musical composition.
5. such scores collectively.
6. any sweet, pleasing, or harmonious sounds or sound: the music of the waves.
7. appreciation of or responsiveness to musical sounds or harmonies: Music was in his very soul.
8. Fox Hunting. the cry of the hounds.

9. face the music, to meet, take, or accept the consequences of one's mistakes, actions, etc.: He's squandered his money and now he's got to face the music.

Origin: 1200–50; ME musike Muse + -ikos -ic
Related forms:
mu⋅sic⋅less, adjective UnabridgedBased on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2009.

MusicJubal was the inventor of musical instruments (Gen. 4:21). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob (Gen. 31:27). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance (Ex. 15). But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets (1 Sam. 10:5; 19:19-24; 2 Kings 3:15; 1 Chr. 25:6). There now arose also a class of professional singers (2 Sam. 19:35; Eccl. 2:8). The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed (2 Sam. 6:5; 1 Chr. 15; 16; 23;5; 25:1-6). In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews (Eccl. 2:8; Amos 6:4-6; Isa. 5:11, 12; 24:8, 9; Ps. 137; Jer. 48:33; Luke 15:25).
Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary

▸ noun: musical activity (singing or whistling etc.) ("His music was his central interest")
▸ noun: punishment for one's actions ("You have to face the music")
▸ noun: any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds ("He fell asleep to the music of the wind chimes")
▸ noun: (music) the sounds produced by singers or musical instruments (or reproductions of such sounds)
▸ noun: an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner
▸ name: A surname (rare: 1 in 50000 families; popularity rank in the U.S.: #6304)
music n [ME musik, fr. OF musique, fr. L musica, fr. Gk mousike any art presided over by the Muses, esp. music, fr. fem. of mousikos of the Muses, fr. Mousa Muse] : the science or art of ordering tones or sounds in succession, in combination, and in temporal relationships to produce a composition having rhythm, melody, or harmony
Music - The science and the art of tones, or musical sounds, i.e., sounds of higher or lower pitch, begotten of uniform and synchronous vibrations, as of a string at various degrees of tension; the science of harmonical tones which treats of the principles of harmony, or the properties, dependences, and relations of tones to each other; the art of combining tones in a manner to please the ear.
"...It is certain that musical tunes can do much with men, and there is no heart so hard and cruel, but convenient and sweet harmony will make it yield. And on the other side, harsh Music will vex and harden a man's mind..."
"...In Mysia, when Horses back Mares, a man sings to them as it were a marriage song, and the mares are so taken with the Music, that they become great with foal, and they bring forth most gallant colts..."
music. For information on types of music see such articles as
absolute music absolute music, term used for music dependent on its structure alone for comprehension. It is the antithesis of program music . It is not associated with extramusical ideas or with a pictorial or narrative scheme of emotions, nor does it attempt to reproduce sounds
aleatory music aleatory music (ā`lēətôr'ē) [Lat.
chamber music chamber music, ensemble music for small groups of instruments, with only one player to each part. Its essence is individual treatment of parts and the exclusion of virtuosic elements.
church music church music. 1 Music intended for performance as part of services of worship. With few exceptions, music is essential to the ritual of every religion; the singing of prayers and portions of Scripture is part of Judaeo-Christian tradition, and a large
computer music computer music, term used to describe music composed or performed with the aid of a computer. The first substantial piece of music composed on a computer was the Illiac Suite (1956) by the avant-garde composer Lejaren Hiller (1925–94).
electronic music electronic music or electro-acoustic music, term for compositions that utilize the capacities of electronic media for creating and altering sounds.
jazz jazz, the most significant form of musical expression of African-American culture and arguably the most outstanding contribution the United States has made to the art of music. Origins of Jazz Jazz developed in the latter part of the 19th cent.
program music program music Instrumental music of the 19th and 20th cent. that endeavors to arouse mental pictures or ideas in the thoughts of the listener—to tell a story, depict a scene, or impel a mood.
rock music rock music, type of music originating in the United States in the mid-1950s and increasingly popular throughout much of the world.
Origins of Rock
serial music serial music, the body of compositions whose fundamental syntactical reference is a particular ordering (called series or row) of the twelve pitch classes—C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, B—that constitute the equal-tempered scale.
spiritual spiritual, a religious folk song of American origin, particularly associated with African-American Protestants of the southern United States. The African-American spiritual, characterized by syncopation, polyrhythmic structure, and the pentatonic scale of five whole

In addition, see entries on the music of various nations and peoples, including
African music African music, the music of the indigenous peoples of Africa. Sub-Saharan African music has as its distinguishing feature a rhythmic complexity common to no other region.
Arabian music Arabian music, classical musical tradition of the Islamic peoples of Arabia, the Fertile Crescent, and North Africa.
Characteristics, Forms, and Instruments
Balinese music Balinese music represents, to a large extent, a survival of the pre-Islamic music of Java. It was taken to Bali by Hindu Javanese in the 15th cent. and uses the tonal systems of Javanese music , of which pelog is by far the more important in Bali.
Chinese music Chinese music, the classical music forms of China. Origins and Characteristics Chinese music can be traced back as far as the third millennium B.C.
Greek music Greek music, the music of the ancient and modern inhabitants of Greece. Ancient Greek Music The music of ancient Greece was inseparable from poetry and dancing. It was entirely monodic, there being no harmony as the term is commonly understood.
Hindu music Hindu music. The music of India is entirely monodic. To Westerners it is the most accessible of all Asian musical cultures. Its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called srutis, not all equal but each roughly equal to one quarter of a whole tone of
Japanese music Japanese music, the highly eclectic musical culture of the Japanese islands. Over the years, Japan has borrowed musical instruments, scales, and styles from many neighboring areas. The indigenous music present before A.D.
Javanese music Javanese music, one of the richest and most distinctive of Asian musical cultures. It was and is of enormous importance in religious, political, and entertainment functions.
Jewish liturgical music Jewish liturgical music, the music used in the religious services of the Jews. The Bible and the Talmud record that spontaneous music making was common among the ancient Jews on all important occasions, religious and secular.

The technical aspects of music, such as theory, notation, and tone, are treated in such general articles as
theory theory, in music, discipline involving the construction of cognitive systems to be used as a tool for comprehending musical compositions. The discipline is subdivided into what can be called speculative and analytic theory.and
musical notation musical notation, symbols used to make a written record of musical sounds. Two different systems of letters were used to write down the instrumental and the vocal music of ancient Greece. In his five textbooks on music theory Boethius (c.A.D. 470– more specific entries, including
counterpoint counterpoint, in music, the art of combining melodies each of which is independent though forming part of a homogeneous texture. The term derives from the Latin for "point against point," meaning note against note in referring to the notation of plainsong .
harmonic harmonic. 1 Physical term describing the vibration in segments of a sound-producing body (see sound ). A string vibrates simultaneously in its whole length and in segments of halves, thirds, fourths, etc.
harmony harmony, in music, simultaneous sounding of two or more tones and, especially, the study of chords and their relations. Harmony was the last in the development of what may be considered the basic elements of modern music—harmony, melody, rhythm, and tone
key key. 1 In music, term used to indicate the scale from which the tonal material of a given composition is derived. To say, for example, that a composition is in the key of C major means that it uses as its basic tonal material the tones of that scale
measure measure, in music, a metrical unit having a given number of beats, the first of which normally is accented, although the accent may be displaced by syncopation. Measures are separated on the staff by vertical lines called bars.
mode mode, in music. 1 A grouping or arrangement of notes in a scale with respect to a most important note (in the pretonal modes of Western music, this note is called the final or finalis
musicology musicology, systematized study of music and musical style, particularly in the realm of historical research. The scholarly study of music of different historical periods was not practiced until the 18th cent., and few published efforts were rigorously researched.
note note, in musical notation , symbol placed on or between the lines of a staff to indicate the pitch and the relative duration of the tone to be produced by voice or instrument.
pitch pitch, in music, the position of a tone in the musical scale , today designated by a letter name and determined by the frequency of vibration of the source of the tone.
polyphony polyphony (pəlĭf`ənē), music whose texture is formed by the interweaving of several melodic lines.
rhythm rhythm, the basic temporal element of music, concerned with duration and with stresses or accents whether irregular or organized into regular patternings. The formulation in the late 12th cent.
scale scale, in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch . A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
syncopation syncopation (sĭng'kəpā`shən, sĭn'–) [New Gr.
tablature tablature (tăb`ləch
temperament temperament, in music, the altering of certain intervals from their acoustically correct values to provide a system of tuning whereby music can move from key to key without unacceptably impure sonorities.
tonality tonality (tōnăl`ĭtē)
tone tone. In music, a tone is distinguished from noise by its definite pitch, caused by the regularity of the vibrations which produce it. Any tone possesses the attributes of pitch, intensity, and quality.
transposing instrument transposing instrument, a musical instrument whose part in a score is written at a different pitch than that actually sounded. Such an instrument is usually referred to by the keynote of its natural scale—the clarinet in A, for example—in which case A is
tuning systems tuning systems, methods for assigning pitches to the twelve Western pitch names that constitute the octave. The term usually refers to this procedure in the tuning of keyboard instruments.

There are numerous articles on various musical forms, including
cantata cantata (kəntä`tə) [Ital.
concerto concerto (kənchâr`tō), musical composition usually for an orchestra and a soloist or a group of soloists. In the 16th cent.
march march, in music, composition intended to accompany marching. The only constant characteristics of a march are duple meter and a fairly simple rhythmic design.
nocturne nocturne (nŏk`tûrn) [Fr.
opera opera, drama set to music. Characteristics The libretto may be serious or comic, although neither form necessarily excludes elements of the other. Opera differs from operetta in its musical complexity and usually in its subject matter.
oratorio oratorio (ôrətôr`ēō)
polonaise polonaise (pŏl'ənāz`, ō'–), Polish national dance, in moderate 3–4 time and of slow, stately movements.
sonata sonata form. This is essentially a binary form, the first part being an exposition of two (or sometimes three) contrasted themes. The second part consists of a development of these themes and a recapitulation of the beginning exposition.
song song, relatively brief, simple vocal composition, usually a setting of a poetic text, often strophic, for accompanied solo voice . The song literature of Western music embodies two broad classifications— folk song and art song.
symphony symphony [Gr.,=sounding together], a sonata for orchestra.
The Italian operatic overture, called sinfonia, was standardized by Alessandro Scarlatti at the end of the 17th cent.

In addition to such survey articles as
concert concert, in music, public performance of a group of musical compositions. Originally the word referred simply to a group of musicians playing together; concerts by a solo performer are properly called recitals.
conducting conducting, in music, the art of unifying the efforts of a number of musicians simultaneously engaged in musical performance. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance the conductor was primarily a time beater, maintaining the measure or tactus
musical instruments 2)), are idiophones, but are not percussion instruments. Aerophones are of two types: free aerophones, which include those reed instruments employing free reeds, and wind instruments , which produce sound by means of an enclosed, vibrating column of air.
music festivals music festivals, series of performances separate from the normal concert season and often, but not always, organized around an idea or theme. Music festivals usually are held annually in the summer, sometimes in the open air.
orchestra and orchestration orchestra and orchestration, an orchestra is a musical ensemble of mixed instruments based on strings and winds, under the direction of a conductor, employing four classes of instruments: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
there are separate articles on musical instruments, treated singly, e.g.,
clarinet clarinet, musical wind instrument of cylindrical bore employing a single reed. The clarinet family comprises all single-reed instruments, including the saxophone. The predecessor of the modern clarinet was the simpler chalumeau, which J. C.
harp harp, stringed musical instrument of ancient origin, the strings of which are plucked with the fingers. Harps were found in paintings from the 13th cent. B.C. at Thebes. In different forms it was played by peoples of nearly all lands throughout the ages.
trumpet trumpet, brass wind musical instrument of part cylindrical, part conical bore, in the shape of a flattened loop and having three piston valves to regulate the pitch.or in groups, e.g.,
reed instrument reed instrument, in music, an instrument whose sound-producing agent is a thin strip of cane, wood, plastic, or metal that vibrates as air is passed over it. The predecessor of these instruments is the Chinese sheng.
stringed instrument stringed instrument, any musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibrating strings. Those whose strings are plucked with the finger or a plectrum include the balalaika , banjo , guitar , harp , lute , mandolin , zither , the sitar of India and Pakistan, the koto
In addition to the entry on
voice voice, sound produced by living beings. The source of the sound in human speaking and singing is the vibration of the vocal cords, which are inside the larynx , and the production of the sounds is called phonation. there are separate articles on
alto alto, singing voice the range of which is lower than the soprano by the interval of a fifth. More generally, the term refers to the register in which this voice sings, i.e.
baritone baritone or barytone (both: băr`ĭtōn)
countertenor countertenor, a male singing voice in the alto range. Singing in this range requires either a special vocal technique called falsetto, or a high extension of the tenor range.
soprano soprano [Ital.,=above], female voice of highest pitch. The three basic types of solo soprano are coloratura, lyric, and dramatic. The coloratura has a great range and impressive vocal agility; the lyric soprano has a light, pretty voice; and the dramatic soprano hasand
tenor tenor, highest natural male voice . In medieval polyphony, tenor was the name given to the voice that had the cantus firmus, a preexisting melody, often a fragment of plainsong, to which other voices in counterpoint were added.

Information on individual composers and performers can be found in biographical entries on composers, e.g. Monteverdi Giulio Cesare Monteverdi, 1573–?, was a composer, organist, and critic, and Claudio's assistant at the court of Mantua.

See studies by D. Arnold (1963 and 1968) and L. Schrade (1950, repr. 1969).Claudio; Puccini Puccini, Giacomo (jä`kōmō pGiacomo; and Schubert Schubert, Franz Peter (fränts pā`tər shFranz Peter; musicians, e.g., Beiderbecke, Bix Beiderbecke, Bix (Leon Bismarck Beiderbecke) (bī`dərbĕk), 1903–31, American jazz cornetist, pianist, and composer, b.Gieseking, Walter Gieseking, Walter (väl`tər gē`zəkĭng), 1895–1956, German pianist, b. Lyons, France, grad.Richter, Sviatoslav Richter, Sviatoslav (svyä`tōsläf rĭkh`tər), 1915–97, Russian pianist, b. Ukraine.and singers, e.g., Deller, Alfred Deller, Alfred, 1912–79, English countertenor . He began his career as a chorister in his parish church. From 1940–47 he was a lay clerk at Canterbury Cathedral, and in 1947 he was appointed to the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral in London.Merrill, Robert Merrill, Robert, 1917–2004, American baritone, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., as Moishe Miller. In 1945 he won the Metropolitan Opera's Auditions of the Air and in the same year made his debut as Germont in Verdi's La Traviata.Sembrich, Marcella Sembrich, Marcella (sĕm`brĭk), 1858–1935, stage name of Praxede Marcelline Kochanska, Polish coloratura soprano.and Sinatra, Frank Sinatra, Frank (Francis Albert Sinatra), 1915–98, American singer and actor, b. Hoboken, N.J. During the late 1930s and early 40s he sang with the Harry James and Tommy Dorsey bands, causing teenage girls to shriek and swoon over his romantic, seemingly casual
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia® Copyright © 2007, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
music - Among all the arts, this is the art of arranging sounds in time, resulting in a composition that elicits an aesthetic response in the listener.
Visual art about music:

Egypt, c. 2400 BCE (5th Dynasty), Musicians, detail of the Akhthetep Mastaba from Sakkara, painted limestone bas-relief, Louvre.

Gerona Bible Master, Bologna, Italy, Gradual, Proper and Common of Saints (folio 84 verso in Manuscript 526), c. 1285, tempera on vellum, one of 290 folios, 51.5 x 35.5 cm (20 1/4 x 14 inches), Musei Civici d'Arte Antica, Bologna. Black marks arranged on the horizontal lines ("staff") displayed here exemplify the system of musical notation used in Italy during much of the Middle Ages. The Latin text (or lyric) opens with "Gaudeamus," meaning "Let us rejoice." The initial letter "G" is historiated in late Byzantine style. This "gradual" is one of a set of three that together comprise the sung portions of the Mass for the entire church year.

Melozzo Da Forli (Italian, 1438-1494), Music-Making Angel (Angel with a Lute), fresco, c. 1480, Vatican, Italy. See angel.

Melozzo Da Forli, Music-Making Angel (Angel with a Violin), fresco, c. 1480, Vatican, Italy.

Italian, 16th century, Illumination of "Conditor alme siderum", a Renaissance period hymn composed by Costanzo Festa (Italian, c. 1480-1545), c. 1538, Collection of Polyphonic Hymns and Magnificats, Vatican, Rome. Costanzo Festa served as a singer in the papal choir from 1517 until his death in 1545. Students of musical notation can observe developments in that aspect of the work. The arms of the reigning pope Paul III on the elaborately decorated "Q" in the upper left. The coat of arms at the bottom of the right-hand page — lions holding a wreath with a fleur-de-lis — may be the composer's personal coat of arms. This work is catalogued as "Capp. Sist. 18 fols. 3 verso - 4 recto music06 NB.36" See historiated.

François Boucher (French, 1703-1770), Allegory of Music, 1752, oil on canvas, 26 1/2 x 30 inches (67.3 x 76.2 cm), North Carolina Art Museum, Raleigh. See allegory and Rococo.

Henri Matisse (French, 1869-1954), Music (Sketch) (La Musique [esquisse]), June-July 1907, oil and charcoal on canvas, 29 x 24 inches (73.4 x 60.8 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY. See dance, Fauvism, movement, and rhythm.

Henri Matisse, Dance (first version), 1909, oil on canvas, 8 feet 6 1/2 inches x 12 feet 9 1/2 inches (259.7 x 390.1 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY. Matisse painted a second version of Dance in 1910, oil on canvas, 102 x 154 inches (260 x 391 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dance, together with Music, was commissioned by S.I.Shchukin to decorate the staircase in his Moscow mansion. Matisse took the motif of the round dance, used as a symbol back as far as French Renaissance, to represent the rhythm and expression of the 20th century. The spaciousness and expressive lines emphasize the dynamics of the figures. Simplified and schematic forms intensify the brightness and resonance of the three colors -- red, blue and green. Dance, Matisse once said, meant "life and rhythm."

Paul Klee (Swiss, 1879-1940), Twittering Machine, 1922, watercolor and pen and ink on oil transfer drawing on paper, mounted on cardboard, 25 1/4 x 19 inches (63.8 x 48.1 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY. Klee, who played the violin well, said the music of J. S. Bach and W. A. Mozart greatly influenced his painting. Many of his paintings have in turn inspired musical compositions. Twittering Machine has been cited as inspiring several. See Bauhaus.

Pablo Picasso (born Pablo Ruiz-Picasso) (Spanish, 1881-1973), Guitar, after March 31, 1913, collaged paper, charcoal, ink, and chalk on blue paper, mounted on ragboard, 26 1/8 x 19 1/2 inches (66.4 x 49.6 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

Bob Thompson (American, 1937-1966), Music Lesson, 1962, oil on canvas. See African American art, Fauvism, and Neoclassicism.

"Music is the luxury of the imagination."Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863), French Romantic painter. The Journals of Eugene Delacroix, March 4, 1824, translated by Walter Pach, 1937.
"All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music."Walter Pater (1839-1894), English art critic and art historian. The Renaissance, 1873.
"Music: the breathing of statues. Perhaps: the silence of paintings. Language where language ends. Time that stands head-up in the direction of hearts that wear out."Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), German poet. "On Music," 1918, from Selected Poems of Rainer Rilke, translated by Robert Bly, 1981.
Also see abstraction, aleatory, animation, Apollo, arts advocacy, arts center, audio guide, auditory, automaton, cinema, creativity, dance, dissonance, eurythmy, four-dimensional, funk art, harmonic sequence, interdisciplinary, juxtaposition, kinesthetic, kinetic, measure, movement, muses, new media, pattern, periodicity, permanence, principles of design, rhythm, theater, theory, universal artwork, and video.

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